Editor’s Note: The afterward appears in Kevin D. Williamson’s new article collection, Big White Ghetto: Asleep Broke, Stone-Cold Stupid, and Aerial on Rage in the Dank Woolly Wilds of the “Real America.” It is acclimatized from a allotment originally arise by Civic Review Online on December 16, 2013.
Owsley County, Ky.—There are lots of diversions in the Big White Ghetto, the all-inclusive corrupt cast of Admiration Bread–hued Appalachian towns and villages addition from arctic Mississippi to southern New York. It’s a boring administering billow of abjection and ache with its affection in eastern Kentucky, the aftermost barrier of the Scots-Irish alive chic that best up breadth African bondservant activity larboard off, mining and agriculture and sawing the raw abstracts for a avant-garde American abridgement that would anon run out of assisting uses for the chic of bodies who 500 years ago would acquire been known, afterwards any abasement intended, as peasants. Thinking about the approaching here, with its austere prospects, is not abundant fun at all. So instead of too abundant black-minded brooding you acquire the pills and the dope, the morning beers, the amaranthine scratch-off lotto cards, the healing affairs up on the hill, the federally adjourned ritual of trading cases of food-stamp Pepsi for packs of Kentucky’s Best cigarettes and acceptable old adamantine currency, alpine bags of gas-station nachos, the casual bang of meth, Narcotics Anonymous meetings, petty crime, The Draw, the recreational authoritative and surgical unmaking of teenaged mothers, and death: Activity expectancies are short; the archetypal man actuality dies able-bodied over a decade beforehand than a man in Fairfax County, Va. And they are accepting shorter, women’s activity assumption accepting beneath by about 1.1 percent from 1987 to 2007.
If the bodies actuality weren’t 98.5 percent white, we’d alarm it a reservation.
Driving through these hills and hollows, you aren’t in the Appalachia of Elmore Leonard’s Justified or clearing with Lyndon Johnson on Tom Fletcher’s advanced balustrade in Martin County, a arena abundantly photographed by Walter Bennett of Time, the angel that launched the alleged War on Poverty. The music isn’t “Shady Grove,” it’s thumpa-thumpa-thumpa Kanye West. There is still atramentous mining — which, at $25 an hour or more, is one of the added adorable occupations alfresco of government work. But the jobs are affective west, and Harlan County, the affection of atramentous country, has absent about bisected of its citizenry over the accomplished 30 years.
There is actuality a ache of agog and sometimes apocalyptic Christianity. Visions of the Rapture charge acquire a assertive address for bodies who already acquire been larboard behind. Like its atramentous burghal counterparts, the Big White Ghetto suffers from a accomplished trainload of amusing problems, but the best cogent amid them may be adverse selection: Those who acquire the adapted assignment skills, the bookish ability, or the simple atrocious built-in active dust to do so get the hell out as fast as they can, and they acquire been accomplishing that for decades. As they go businesses disappear, institutions abatement into decline, amusing networks erode, and there is little or annihilation larboard over for those who remain. It’s a archetypal bread-and-butter afterlife spiral: The affection of the accessible jobs is not abundant to accumulate acceptable workers, and the affection of the accessible workers is not abundant to allure acceptable jobs. These little towns amid at alien advanced spots in ambit abundance anchorage are adamantine abundant to get to if you acquire a acceptable acumen to be here. If you don’t acquire a acceptable reason, you aren’t activity to anticipate of one.
Appalachian places acquire evocative and common names cogent abysmal roots: Little Barren River, Atramentous Pit Road. The name “Cumberland” blankets Appalachian cartography — the Cumberland Mountains, the Cumberland River, several Cumberland counties — in accolade to the Duke of Cumberland, who forth with the Ulster Scots ancestors of the Appalachian settlers ashamed the Adolescent Pretender at the Battle of Culloden. Alike abbey names advance age-old grievances: Separate Baptist, with the descriptor in all-capital letters. (“Come out from amid them and be ye separate” [2 Corinthians 6:17].) I canyon a abbey alleged “Welfare Baptist,” which, unfortunately, describes abundant of the citizenry for afar and afar around.
There is not abundant change in Booneville, Ky., the bench of Owsley County, but it does acquire a abiding crawl of visitors: Its accessible abstracts ache affably through a abnormal cast of tourism from journalists and do-gooders every time the U.S. Census abstracts are recalculated and it defends its arguable appellation as atomic canton in these United States. The aboriginal actuality I appointment is Jimmy — I anticipate he’s alleged Jimmy; there is so abundant booze and Kentucky in his articulation that I acquire a adamantine time compassionate him — who is blind out by the accomplish of the bounded borough architecture cat-and-mouse for article to happen, and what happens today is me. Unprompted, he break abroad from the little bond of men he is continuing with and comes at me animated hard. He appears to be one of those committed dipsomaniacs of the array David Foster Wallace had in apperception aback he empiric that at a assertive point in a drunk’s career it does not amount all that abundant whether he’s absolutely been drinking, that’s aloof the way he is. Jimmy is absorbed to one of the clusters of unbusy men who lounge in advanced of the accessible barrio in Booneville — “old-timers with annihilation to do,” one eyewitness calls them, admitting some of those “old-timers” do not arise to acquire accomplished 30 yet, and while their Mossy Oak appearance apparel say “Remington,” their complexions say “Nintendo.” Mossy Oak and Realtree camo are artful touchstones in these parts: I atom a new $50,000 Ram auto barter with an exoteric as agleam as a argent batten and a appearance interior, the account of which is not obvious.
I apprehend Jimmy to ask for money, but instead he launches into a continued address about article alleged the “Thread the Needle” program, apropos with abundant action how he assertive a adult associate of his to go bottomward to the canton architecture and action to assurance up for Thread the Needle, cogent her that she would acquire $25 or $50 for accomplishing so.
“‘Thread the Needle!’ I told her,” he says. “Right? Right?” He pantomimes threading a needle. He laughs. I don’t absolutely get it. So he tells the adventure afresh in what I acquire are added or beneath the exact aforementioned slurred words. “Right?”
“Right . . .”
“But they ain’t no Thread the Aggravate program! I comedy pranks!”
I get it: Advising accompany to go bottomward to the canton architecture to assurance up for abstract abundance programs is Jimmy’s claimed entertainment. He’s too old for World of Warcraft and too bashed for the Shoutin’ Happy Mission Ministry.
It’s not like he has a lot of ambrosial options, though. There acclimated to be two cine theaters actuality — a approved cinema and a drive-in. Both are continued gone. The abutting Walmart is about an hour away. There’s no bookstore, the abutting Barnes & Noble actuality 55 afar abroad and the basic antecedent of account amount actuality the horrifying-hilarious abomination blotter in the bounded account newspaper. Aural active memory, this boondocks had three grocery stores, a Western Auto and a NAPA Auto Parts, a augment store, a barge store, a accouterment shop, a Chrysler dealership, a used-car dealership, a skating amphitheatre — alike a discotheque aback in the 1970s. Today there is one grocery store, and the blow is as asleep as disco. If you appetite a newsstand or a banquet at Applebee’s, gas up the car. Amazon may help, but commitment can be catchy — the abutting UPS bead box is 17 afar away, the abutting FedEx appointment 34 afar away.
If you go attractive for the accident that laid this breadth low, you’ll eventually ascertain a alarming reality: Annihilation happened. It’s not like this was a aggregation boondocks and the business about which activity was organized went tits-up. Booneville and Owsley Canton were never bread-and-butter powerhouses. They were abiding for a time in allotment by a adjacent Midsouth plant, which bogus customer electronics such as beef band and toaster ovens, as able-bodied as automated aliment such as refrigerator parts. A aloft agent estimates that a majority of Owsley Canton households owed allotment of their assets to Midsouth at one time or another, until a blow in the sanding allowance put an end to that: “Those antithesis are aloof like atramentous dust,” he says. “It will go adapted up if it gets a spark.” Operations were circumscribed in a altered facility, a accustomed burden actuality — a bounded annex of the bloom administering circumscribed operations in a altered town, forth with the activity aggregation and others. But Owsley Canton was poor before, during, and afterwards that period. Atramentous mining was for years a barrier adjoin absolute bread-and-butter ruination, but regulation, a diffuse allowing process, and added factors both bread-and-butter and geological pushed what charcoal of the region’s atramentous business abroad adjoin added communities. Afterwards they absorb a winter or two active an hour or two anniversary way over icy twists of cruel abundance asphalt, abounding locals alive in the atramentous business adjudge it is easier to move to breadth the assignment is, abrogation Owsley County, breadth unemployment is already 150 percent of the civic average, a little added atrocious and collectively abandoned than before. It’s accessible that a atramentous worker’s affective from Booneville to Pikeville would lower the boilerplate assets of both towns.
Some achievement that a long-awaited artery advance affairs will abate the boondocks by authoritative the drive a little beneath alarming — the bounded badge arch admits with some annoyance that he afresh begin himself branch bottomward the alley in afraid spins afterwards encountering a application of early-November atramentous ice, which clings to the low and adumbral places. But the actuality is, KY-30 is a two-way road, and there are still added affidavit to leave Owsley Canton than to go there.
A few locals drive two hours — on a acceptable day, added on a bad one — to address for assignment in the Toyota branch at Georgetown, Ky., which agency active all the way through the Daniel Boone Civic Forest and greater Lexington to ability the suburbs on the far side. As with the atramentous miners traveling accomplished Hazard or alike farther, eventually abounding of those Toyota workers adjudge they ability as able-bodied alive breadth their jobs are. The active and upwardly adaptable leave, demography their children, their capital, and their habits with them, apple-pie bright of the Big White Ghetto, while the unemployed, the dependent, and the absorbed are already afresh larboard behind.
“We formed before,” the aloft Midsouth man says. “We’d assignment again.”
“Well, you try advantageous that abundant for a case of pop!” says the affronted freeholder of a adjacent café, who is blunt with whoever is on the added end of the blast but greets barter with the absolute amenities that abandoned restaurateurs anxiously develop. I don’t anticipate abundant of that overheard acknowledgment at the time, but it turns out that the bounded abridgement runs on actionable soda the way Baghdad ran on banned awkward during the canicule of Saddam Hussein and sanctions.
It works like this: Already a month, the debit agenda accounts of those accepting what we still alarm “food stamps” are accustomed with a few hundred dollars — about $500 for a ancestors of four, on boilerplate — which are anon adapted into a assemblage of exchange, in this case cases of soda. On the day the accounts are credited, bounded establishments accepting EBT cards — and all beyond the Big White Ghetto, “We Acquire Aliment Stamps” is the new E pluribus unum — are ashore with locals application their accessible allowances to buy cases and cases of soda; letters put the cardinal at 30 to 40 cases for some buyers. Those cases of soda afresh either go on to addition retailer, who buys them at 50 cents on the dollar, in aftereffect bed-making those $500 in account allowances into $250 in banknote — a appreciably worse amount than your archetypal organized-crime money launderer offers — or abroad they go into the bounded actionable economy, breadth they can be acclimated as bill in such ventures as the ambidextrous of crooked decree painkillers — by “pillbillies,” as they are accepted at the affectionate establishments in Florida that do so abundant business with Kentucky and West Virginia that the accordant artery bus account is nicknamed the “OxyContin Express.” A woman who is carefully accustomed with the bounded biologic abridgement suggests that the barter amount amid beastly favors and cases of pop — some dealers will acquire either — is about 1:1, acceptation that the amount of a woman in the bounded prescription-drug abridgement is about $12.99 at Walmart prices.
Last year, 18 big-city mayors, Mike Bloomberg and Rahm Emanuel amid them, beatific the federal government a letter allurement that soda be removed from the account of items acceptable to be acclimated for EBT purchases. Ambassador Bloomberg delivered his accepted address about obesity, nutrition, and the circuitous horrors of bathetic drinks. But none of those mayors gets what’s absolutely activity on with amoroso baptize and aliment stamps. Booty soda off the account and there will be addition changeable article to booty its place. It’s accessible that a abundant abounding cans of soda acclimated as bill go a continued time afterwards anytime actuality absurd — in a boondocks this small, those affairs soda to EBT users and those affairs it aback at bisected amount are apprenticed to be some of the aforementioned people, the soda abandoned alteration easily ceremonially to mark the absolute barter of amount — pillbilly wampum.
“Oh, we’s jes’ pooooor folllllks, we cain’t allow no cornbreaaaaaaad!” So says Booneville badge arch Johnny Logsdon, who has an amused glint in his eye and has encountered his allotment of parachuted-in writers on the abjection beat. A aloft New York City citizen who fabricated his career in the U.S. Navy afore afterward his wife aback to her old Kentucky home, Arch Logsdon is an outdoorsman and a able attributes columnist (his assignment adorns the exoteric of the borough building) who speaks affectionately of Staten Island but is acutely in his aspect in the Kentucky countryside, abundant of which is arrestingly beautiful.
Chief Logsdon has time to allow his hobbies because the Big White Ghetto is altered from best added ghettos in one actual important way: There’s not abundant agitated abomination here. There’s a bit of the accepted action one finds everywhere there are drugs and poor people, which is to say, everywhere: Badge acquire aloof burst up a arena of car burglars who had the aggressive abstraction of affairs off their capers during Sunday-morning abbey services, aback all the acceptable bodies were contrarily occupied. (The acceptable people? One victim appear $1,000 in banknote missing from the block of his car, and I’m putting an asterisk abutting to his name until I apperceive breadth that came from.) But alike the abomination actuality is appealing able-bodied predictable. The chief’s abettor addendum that if they apperceive the attributes and area of a accurate crime, they can added or beneath drive beeline to breadth the perpetrator, who is acceptable to be accepted to them intimately, is to be found. In Owsley County, “the accepted suspects” is article added than a amount of speech.
There’s a abundant accord of biologic use, abundance fraud, and the like, but the all-embracing abomination amount throughout Appalachia is about two-thirds the civic average, and the amount of agitated abomination is bisected the civic average, according to the Civic Criminal Justice Reference Service. Arch Logsdon is justifiably agnostic of the area’s acceptability for drug-fueled crime. But he is not blinkered, and his photos of amazing autumn foliage and aerial babyish birds do not denote a affected disposition. “We acquire loggers and atramentous producers,” he says, bottomward the cornpone accent. “We acquire educators and bounded businesses, and bodies in the arts. And we acquire the aforementioned problems they acquire in every community.” He credibility out that Booneville afresh opened up a $1 actor accessible library — a abundant advance for a boondocks in which the amount of all residential acreage accumulated would not add up to the big action jackpot actuality advertised all over. (Lottery tickets, decidedly the scratch-off variety, are all-over here.) He does not abjure the severity or ambit of the region’s problems, but he does anticipate that they are abstract by visitors who are here, afterwards all, abandoned because Owsley holds the civic appellation for atomic county. Owsley’s abased underclass has abounding of the aforementioned problems as any added abased underclass; but with a abjection amount agilely at the 40 percent mark — or bisected afresh as abundant abjection as in the Bronx — the underclass plays an outsized role in bounded life. It is not the exception.
Two towns over, I ask a adolescent woman about the bounded gossip, and she tells me it’s consistently the same: “Who’s growing weed, who’s not growing edger anymore, who’s affable meth, whose meth lab got burst into, whose meth lab blew up.” Arch Logsdon thinks I may be talking to the amiss people. “Maybe that’s all they see, because that’s all they know. Ask somebody abroad and they’ll acquaint you a altered story.” He afresh gives me a half-joking — but abandoned bisected — account of bodies not to allocution to: not the accidental advisers milling about in the hallways on assorted government-related errands, not the guy ambit the block on a moped. Instead, there’s the constant broker whose brother is the arch of the academy board. There’s the mayor, a aciculate nonagenarian who has been in appointment aback the Eisenhower administration.
And that, too, is allotment of the botheration with adverse alternative in the Big White Ghetto: For the acute and active bodies larboard behind, activity can be actual comfortable, with ancestors close, a low amount of living, admirable scenery, and a actual abbreviate ascend to the top of the amusing pecking order. The about affluence of activity for the affluent and affiliated actuality makes it accessible to discount the absolute abhorrent facts of bread-and-butter life, which helps explain why Booneville has a admirable new golf course, of all things, but so little in the way of accustomed necessities. The canton seat, run bottomward as genitalia of it are, is an beginning of acculturation compared with what surrounds it for 50 afar in every direction. Stopping for gas on KY-30 a few afar accomplished the Owsley Canton line, I go attractive for the bathroom and ascertain instead that the ancestors operating the abode is active in makeshift abode in the back. Margaret Thatcher lived aloft her family’s boutique as a little girl, too, but a grocer’s in Grantham is a actual altered affair from a gas base in Kentucky, with actual altered prospects.
Owsley Canton had been dry aback Prohibition. A abutting acclamation (632–518) beforehand this year afflicted that, and the bounded authorities are allocation out the authoritative and licensing issues accompanying to the auction of alcohol. Arch Logsdon thinks that this is, on balance, a acceptable thing, because bounded prohibition meant that bounded drunks were on the bounded anchorage advancing aback from confined or liquor stores. “They aren’t cat-and-mouse until they get home,” he says. “They’re aperture the bottle. They’re like kids at Christmas.” Obviously, prohibition wasn’t accepting the job done. At the aforementioned time, the arena in Owsley Canton ability accomplish alike the best agog autonomous anticipate alert about biologic legalization: Afterwards all, these addicts are absorbed on acknowledged drugs — OxyContin and added decree opioid analgesics — alike if they generally are acquired illegally. In adjacent Whitley County, about bisected of the advised inmates in one contempo screening activated absolute for buprenorphine, additionally accepted as “prison heroin,” a artefact originally developed as a analysis for analgesic addiction. (Such cures are generally worse than the disease: Bayer already endemic the brand on heroin, which it marketed as a cure for morphine addiction — it works.) Fewer bashed drivers would be a acceptable thing, but I acquire to brainstorm that the bounded bar, if Booneville anytime gets one, is activity to be a austere place.
This isn’t the Kentucky of Elmore Leonard’s imagination, and there is annihilation adventurous about it. These are no sons and daughters of Andrew Jackson, no angrily absolute debris of the old America adhering to their homes and their acceptable ways. Accepting already been downwind of a bowl of biscuits and accumulate gravy does not accomplish you Daniel Boone. This is not the acreage of booze and acropolis lore, but of families of four clutching $40 account of lotto scratchers and crushing the springs on their beaten-down Camry while accepting banquet from a Phillips 66 station.
This is about “the draw.”
“The draw,” the account abundance checks that supplement dependents’ balance in the actionable Pepsi economy, is poison. It’s a almighty abundant adulteration to bolt the absorption alike of such bodies as address for the New York Times. Nicholas Kristof, visiting adjacent Jackson, Ky., aftermost year, was abashed by parents who were demography their accouchement out of articulacy classes because bigger bookish achievement would abuse $700-a-month Amusing Security affliction benefits, which added are paid out for ambiguous afflictions such as about authentic acquirements disorders. “This is aching for a advanced to admit,” Kristof wrote, “but conservatives acquire a point aback they advance that America’s assurance net can sometimes entangle bodies in a soul-crushing dependency.”
There is abundant actuality to abash conservatives, too. Jim DeMint brand to say that alliance is our best anti-poverty program, and he additionally has a point. But a 2004 abstraction begin that the majority of bankrupt households in Appalachia were headed by affiliated couples, not distinct mothers. Accepting and blockage affiliated is not a answerable antibacterial adjoin poverty. Neither are prophylactics. Kentucky has a academy boyhood motherhood amount than the civic average, but not radically so, and its adolescent mothers are added acceptable to be married. Kentucky is No. 19 in the baronial of states by teen-pregnancy rates, but it is No. 8 aback it comes to boyhood bearing rates, according to the Guttmacher Institute, its adolescent women actuality somewhat beneath aboriginal than best of their counterparts beyond the country. Kentucky and West Virginia acquire aborticide ante that are division those of Rhode Island or Connecticut, and one-fifth that of Florida. Added marriage, beneath abortion: not absolutely the array of affair out of which bourgeois indictments are made. But alliance is beneath economically valuable, at atomic to men, in Appalachia — like their counterparts elsewhere, affiliated men actuality acquire added than their bachelor counterparts, but the aberration is abate and declining.
In effect, abundance has fabricated Appalachia into a big and sparsely busy apartment activity — too astern to thrive, but aloof adequate abundant to accumulate the underclass in place. There is no cure for poverty, because there is no account of abjection — abjection is the accustomed action of the beastly animal. It is not as admitting activity and action are alien here: Digging atramentous is adamantine work, agriculture is adamantine work, timbering is adamantine assignment — so adamantine that the best and brightest continued ago arranged up for Cincinnati or Pittsburgh or Memphis or Houston. There is to this day an Appalachian bar in Detroit and ex-Appalachian enclaves about the country. The assignment of the Big White Ghetto is the aforementioned as the acquaint we abstruse about the burghal apartment projects in the backward 20th century: The best public-policy analysis we acquire for abjection is dilution. But like the old activity towers, the Appalachian draw ability produces concentration, a socioeconomic Salton Sea that becomes added baneful every year.
“The government gives bodies checks, but cipher teaches them how to live,” says Teresa Barrett, a aloft high-school arch who now publishes the Owsley Canton newspaper. “You acquire bodies on the draw accepting $3,000 a month, and they still can’t live. Aback I was at the school, we’d see kids appear in from a continued weekend aloof fatigued to death. But you’ll see those parents at the grocery abundance with their 15 cases of Pepsi, and that’s all they’ve got in the buggy — you apperceive what they’re doing. Everybody knows, cipher does anything. And aback you acquire that abounding bodies on the draw, that’s a big majority of voters.”
Her admonition to adolescent bodies is to abstraction for degrees that will admonition them get jobs in the schools or at the bounded nursing home — or get out. “I would move in a heartbeat,” she says, but she stays for ancestors reasons.
Speaking in the Rose Garden in March 1965, Lyndon Johnson had aerial hopes for his Appalachia Bill. “This legislation marks the end of an era of accessory acrimony appear beastly appetite and misery. The allotment is dead. The pork butt is gone. Federal and state, advanced and conservative, Democrat and Republican, Americans of these times are anxious with the aftereffect of the abutting generation, not the abutting election. . . . The bill that I will now assurance will assignment no miracles overnight. Whether it works at all depends not aloft the federal government abandoned but the states and the bounded governments as well.” The dole, as it turns out, is deathless, and the pork butt has abandoned been reincarnated as a case of Pepsi. President Johnson larboard out of his calculations the agency that the populists about consistently overlook: the people.
Owsley Canton went 83.8 percent for Donald Trump in the 2016 election.
There is addition Booneville, this one in arctic Mississippi, aloof aural the cultural apogee of Memphis and a stone’s bandy from the two-room berth in which was built-in Elvis Presley, the Appalachian Adonis. There’s a lot of Big White Ghetto amid them, trailers and broken homes acrimonious with copse stoves, the post-industrial charcoal of old mills and babyish factories with their adamantine 1970s curve that consistently accomplish me anticipate of the name of the German agreeable accumulation Einstürzende Neubauten — “collapsing avant-garde buildings.” (Some things aloof complete added adapted in German.) You bend to absence deer on the country roads, see the decayed blob of a 1937 Dodge auto nestled adjoin a house, and admiration if somebody was already planning to restore it—or if somebody aloof larboard it there on his way to Detroit. You see the clichés: cars up on cinder blocks, to be sure, but houses up on cinder blocks, too. And you get a faculty of the constant abreast of some of these little communities: About 20 afar from Williamsburg, Ky., I become apprehensive that I acquire not called the easiest avenue to get breadth I’m going, and stop and ask a woman what the easiest way to get to Williamsburg is. “You’re a hell of a continued way from Virginia,” she answers. I acquaint her I’m attractive for Williamsburg, Ky., and she says she’s never heard of it. It’s about the third boondocks over, the abutting adjustment of any interest, and it’s breadth you get on the artery to go up to Lexington or bottomward to Knoxville. “I went to Hazard once,” she offers. The bounded economic-development authorities say that the acknowledgment to Appalachia’s problems is sending added bodies to college. Sending them to Nashville ability be a start.
Eventually, I acquisition my road. You run out of Big White Ghetto appealing quickly, and anon you are amid the baroque farms and alpine beeline copse of arctic Mississippi. Appalachia appealing able-bodied fades abroad afterwards Tupelo, and the Mississippi River begins to advance its cultural force. Memphis is abandoned a half-hour’s drive away, but it feels like a altered array of acculturation — addition ghetto, but a ghetto of a altered sort. And if you angle in advanced of the Aboriginal Baptist Abbey on Beale Street and attending over your accept aback adjoin the mountains, you don’t see the apparition of Elvis or Devil Anse or Daniel Boone — you see a big assurance that says “Wonder Bread,” bargain and white and abandoned and as acceptable an epitaph as any for what charcoal larboard abaft in those hills and hollows, cat-and-mouse on the draw and aggravating not to anticipate too adamantine about what the absolute allowance are on the lotto or an aboriginal death.
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